随着人们越来越熟练地驾驭《环球app下载安装地址》(ITAR), 他们常常惊讶地发现,中国不仅控制出口, but that it also has something to say about temporary imports.

In one of the more succinct sections of the regulation (ITAR 120.53), temporary imports are defined as:

“……从外国带入美国的任何国防物品:

  1. To be returned to the country from which it was shipped or taken; or
  2. 运输到另一外国目的地的任何国防物品.”

该定义包括“从海关保税仓库或者对外保税区撤回防卫品,目的是将其退回原产国、装运国或者运往其他外国目的地。.”

归类为临时进口的一种常见情况是,某些东西被带到美国进行维修或一对一更换. 其他例子还包括用于贸易展览或私人向潜在客户演示的设备.

Permanent imports, on the other hand, are items brought to the United States for domestic consumption.

例如,进口制导炮弹进行测试并可能出售给美国.S. government is a permanent import because the rounds are consumed domestically; once fired, they can’t be returned.

因此,需要解决的第一个问题是,进口是暂时的还是永久的. But it also raises the question: If the ITAR, 是由国务院管理的吗, controls temporary imports, who controls permanent imports?

Those, as stated in the ITAR 120.53, 在司法部酒精管理局的指导下,由司法部长监管, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives” (ATF).

从事国防相关领域工作并习惯于ITAR的公司可能没有意识到他们的一些活动可能需要ATF的许可.

由于1976年的《环球app下载安装》,这两个官僚机构都承担了这些责任, 因此,虽然有两个不同的机构来监督可能相关的进口活动, their regulations have some similarities.

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U.S. Munitions List v. U.S. Munitions Import List

ITAR对临时进口的管制只适用于下列项目 U.S. Munitions List (USML),由国防贸易管制局(DDTC)管理。.

ATF对永久进口的管制适用于不同但名称相似的项目 U.S. Munitions Import List (USMIL).

If something appears on the USML, 您需要DDTC的许可才能临时导入它. 这种许可可能以许可或豁免的形式出现.

If something is on the USMIL, 你需要获得ATF的许可,以获得许可证或豁免,永久进口该物品.

在两个列表中都可以找到许多项目,但它们并不完全相同. 一些出现在USML上的物品不会出现在USMIL上-允许未经事先批准不能临时带入该国的物品可以进入该国, in fact, be imported permanently.

这两个列表遵循相同的结构(见图表),并且一度更加相似. But they’ve diverged over time, 对它们的高级类别进行比较,可以看出每个列表所关注的问题之间存在明显的区别.

ITAR和USML侧重于国家安全-防止某些美国非法贸易.S. military goods from being used to benefit hostile powers. They cover not only armaments and ammunition, but also things like body armor, advanced electronics and certain satellite technology.

ATF和USMIL更关心国内安全和反恐——重点放在枪支和爆炸物上. The ATF list specifies more firearms than does the ITAR, including semi-automatic weapons, which no longer appear on the USML. 但军用电子设备、夜视系统等并不受其影响.

Comparison of U.S. Munitions List v. Munitions Import List

Category
USML (ITAR)
USMIL (ATF)
I Firearms & Related Articles Firearms
II Guns and Armament Artillery Projectors
III Ammunition and Ordnance Ammunition
IV 采购产品运载火箭,制导导弹,弹道导弹,火箭,鱼雷,炸弹和地雷 采购产品运载火箭,制导导弹,弹道导弹,火箭,鱼雷,炸弹和地雷
V 炸药和高能材料,推进剂,燃烧剂及其成分 Reserved
VI  Surface Vessels of War and Special Naval Equipment Vessels of War and Special Naval Equipment
VII  Ground Vehicles Tanks and Military Vehicles
VIII  Aircraft and Related Articles Aircraft and Associated Equipment
IX  Military Training Equipment and Training Reserved
X  Personal Protective Equipment Reserved
XI  Military Electronics Reserved
XII  Fire Control, Laser, Imaging, and Guidance Equipment Reserved
XIII  Materials and Miscellaneous Articles Reserved
XIV 采购产品毒理学试剂,包括化学试剂,生物试剂和相关设备 Toxicological Agents and Equipment and Radiological Equipment
XV  Spacecraft and Related Articles Reserved
XVI  Nuclear Weapons Related Articles Nuclear Weapons Design and Test Equipment
XVII 分类物品、技术资料及未另行列举之防卫服务 Reserved
XVIII  Directed Energy Weapons Reserved
XIX  Gas Turbine Engines and Associated Equipment Reserved
XX  Submersible Vessels and Related Articles Submersible Vessels, Oceanographic and Associated Equipment
XXI 未列之物品、技术资料及防卫服务 Miscellaneous Articles

Companies that work in explosives are used to these nuances. 但在其他国防相关领域工作的公司可能没有意识到,他们需要获得ATF的许可才能进行某些进口活动.

Registration

根据ITAR和ATF获得进口许可的规定和程序是相似的,但并非完全相同. Both require entities that import controlled items to register.

受《环球app下载安装》规管的进出口活动的登记,由贸易发展局使用表格办理 DS-2032, which must be submitted through the 国防出口管制和合规系统(DECCS)的电子门户). As of March 2023, registration fees start at $2,250/year.

向ATF登记为进口商的申请是透过 ATF Form 5330.4. Fees,  as of March 2023, start at $250/year.

Both regulations also have record-keeping requirements.

Licenses, permits and exemptions

The process for acquiring a temporary import license under the ITAR (对于USML上的项目)根据项目是分类还是非分类而有所不同. The application form for unclassified items is Form DSP-61; and DSP-85 for classified items.

Obtaining an import permit through ATF begins with ATF Form 6.

这两项规定都允许豁免通常的许可证或许可证要求的可能性. For example, 如果活动是根据与国防部的合同进行的,则USMIL上的物品不需要ATF进口许可证.

根据《环球app下载安装地址》豁免临时进口许可证的规定载于 Section 123.4 of the ITAR. The ATF provides a list of permit exemptions on its website.

Looking for additional guidance? Check out our latest on-demand webinar: A Primer on Navigating ATF Controls.

Contact the Export Compliance Training Institute

Do you have questions about permanent vs. temporary imports? Visit 18.davecruzstore.com 了解我们的公司,我们的教师,我们的员工和我们尊敬的人 Export Compliance Professional (ECoP®) certification program. To find upcoming e-seminarslive seminars and live webinars and browse our catalog of 80-plus on-demand webinarsvisit our ECTI Academy. You can also call the Export Compliance Training Institute at 540-433-3977 for more information.

Scott Gearity is President of ECTI, Inc.

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